Intersample Peaks, Normalization, and Limiting …

When preparing to encode MP3 files we need to be aware of the possibility of Intersample Peaks (ISP) that may be introduced in the output, especially when targeting low bit rates. This results from the filtering present in lossy encoding. We alleviate this risk by leaving at least 1 dB of headroom below 0dBFS.

Producers should peak normalize source files slated for MP3 encoding to nothing higher than -1.0 dBFS. In fact I may suggest lowering your ceiling further to -1.5 dBFS sometime in the future. Let me stress that I’m referring to Peak Normalization and not Loudness Normalization. Peak Normalizing to a specific level will limit audio peaks when and if the signal reaches a user defined ceiling. It is possible to set a digital ceiling when performing Loudness Normalization as well. This is a topic for a future blog post.

Notice the ISP in this image lifted from an MP3 wave form. The original source file was peak normalized to -0.1 dBFS and exhibited no signs of clipping.

You can also avoid ISP’s by using a compliant ITU Limiter and setting the ceiling accordingly. During source file encoding this type of limiter will detect when ISP’s may occur in the encoded MP3.

For podcast and internet audio, a limiter set to a standardized ceiling of -1.0/-1.5 dBFS works well and is recommended.


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